effectiveness of engaging with local communities to gain support for conservation
efforts. Iranian authorities have used this
strategy to address poaching of the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx
jubatus venaticus, which only lives in Iran
(8). To raise awareness in local communities, the Department of the Environment
developed educational programs, held
training workshops, and distributed literature highlighting the value of the Asiatic
cheetah (9). As a result, the rate of cheetah
mortality by local people reduced substantially (10). As in the case of the cheetah, if
local communities realize the importance
of these migratory birds, they will likely
work to conserve them.
Jamshid Parchizadeh1 and
Samual T. Williams2
1Tehran City, Tehran Province, Iran. 2Department
of Zoology, School of Mathematical and Natural
Sciences, University of Venda, Thohoyandou,
1. France 24, “Iran’s wetlands: a ‘real massacre’ for migratory
birds,” The Observers (2015); http://observers.france24.
2. M.Ahmadpouretal., Environ.Monit.Assess.188,
3. “Daily kill of 3000 birds in Fereydunknar,”Mehr NewsAgency
4. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species,
Leucogeranusleuco-geranus ( www.iucnredlist.org/details/22692053/0).
5. “Lastwestern Siberiancrane‘Omid’landsin Iran,”MehrNews
Agency (2017); https://en.mehrnews.com/news/129694/
6. “Fearsofextinctionfor West Siberiancranesduetocruel
hunting in Iran and Pakistan,” The Siberian Times (2015);
Fereydunknar,” Young Journalists Club (2017); www.yjc.ir/fa/
news/5378457 [in Farsi].
8. J.Parchizadeh,S. T.Williams,Nature 552,31(2017).
9. UNDP Iran, “Conservation of Asiatic Cheetah Project
(CACP)–Phase II” (2017); www.ir.undp.org/content/iran/
conservation of the Asiatic cheetah, its natural habitats,
and associated biota in Iran” (Project Number IRA/00/
G35, GEF/UNDP/DoE, Tehran, Iran 2008) [Farsi with English
Shifting sands could
bring invasive species
In their Letter “Greenland: Build an economy on sand” (17 November 2017, p. 879),
M. Bendixen et al. suggest that Greenland
develop a sand export industry. Bendixen
et al. caution that implementation of sand
extraction methods must minimize adverse
impacts on local environments, but they do
not touch on the potential for a substantial
consequence of a new export trade: the
introduction of non-native invasive organisms to Greenland.
In the Perspective that prompted
Bendixen et al.’s Letter (“A looming tragedy
of the sand commons,” 8 September 2017,
p. 970), A. Torres et al. discuss the need to
evaluate the full spectrum of environmental
impacts and cascading effects of extractive sand mining, including the transfer of
invasive species, to minimize unintended
consequences. The delivery of non-native
biota deserves particular attention when
initiating new or expanded export/import
industries serviced by maritime transportation. Shifts in export of bulk commodities
like sand may be especially potent as a
source of new invasions.
Commercial ships that move bulk cargo
Richard A. Everett1*† A. Whitman Miller2
often discharge large volumes of foreign-
sourced ballast water and organisms to
exporting ports (1) and carry biofouling
organisms on their underwater surfaces
(2). As a result, shipping is a leading source
of coastal invasions worldwide (3). Port
infrastructure and development may also
facilitate invasions (4). Although vessels are
increasingly subject to regulations to reduce
shipborne invasions, the efficacy of these
measures remains unknown (5). Hence, the
potential effect of large increases in mari-
time activity on invasion dynamics at high
northern latitudes is a growing concern (6).
These concerns should not prevent new
or increasing maritime trade. However,
particularly when wholly new infrastructure
may be required, all stakeholders should
collaborate to develop and implement
innovative and comprehensive invasion
Gregory M. Ruiz2
1United States Coast Guard, Environmental
Standards Division (CG-OES-3), Washington, DC
20593, USA. 2Smithsonian Environmental Research
Center, Edgewater, MD 21037, USA.
†The views expressed herein are those of the author
and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the
views of the Commandant or of the U. S. Coast Guard.
1. E.Verling et al., Proc. R. Soc. B 272,1249(2005).
3. G. M. Ruiz etal ., Aquat.Ecosys.Health Manag.18, 299 (2015).
4. K.A.Dafforn, Manag.Biol.Invasions 8,153(2017).
5. K. Carney et al ., PLOS One 12, e0172468 (2017).
6. A.Ricciardi etal., Trends Ecol.Evol.32,464(2017).
TECHNICAL COMMENT ABSTRACTS
Comment on “The whole-soil carbon flux
in response to warming”
Jing Xiao, Fangjian Yu, Wanying Zhu,
Chenchao Xu, Kaihang Zhang, Yiqi Luo,
James M. Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou, Lei Cheng
In a compelling study, Hicks Pries et al.
(Reports, 31 March 2017, p. 1420) showed that
4°C warming significantly enhanced soil CO2
production in the 1-meter soil profile, with all
soil depths displaying similar temperature
sensitivity (Q10). We argue that some caveats can be identified in their experimental
approach and analysis, and that these critically
undermine their conclusions and hence their
claim that the strength of feedback between
the whole-soil carbon and climate has been
underestimated in terrestrial models.
Full text: dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0218
Response to Comment on “The whole-soil
carbon flux in response to warming”
Caitlin E. Hicks Pries, C. Castanha, R.
Porras, Claire Phillips, M. S. Torn
Temperature records and model predictions
demonstrate that deep soils warm at the same
rate as surface soils, contrary to Xiao et al.’s
assertions. In response to Xiao et al.’s critique
of our Q10 analysis, we present the results with
all data points included, which show Q10 values
of >2 throughout the soil profile, indicating that
all soil depths responded to warming.
Full text: dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0457
878 23 FEBRUARY 2018 • VOL 359 ISSUE 6378 sciencemag.org SCIENCE
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