control and one-third is on indigenous lands.
The largest current protections are in FFG-1 and
FFG-2, followed by FFG-4 and FFG-6. The massive
peat forests of FFG-5, however, are afforded less
government protection, relying more on the ef-
ficacy of indigenous occupancy for protection.
Our analysis also revealed large tracts of officially
unallocated forest functional diversity arrayed
throughout the region, including 21 to 53% of
the mapped FFGs and their contributing func-
tional classes. Of these opportunities for con-
servation, lowland Amazonian forests in northern
Fig. 2. Forest functional diversity of the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon region. (A) Classification
based on seven forest canopy traits derived from
airborne imaging spectroscopy, yielding 36 forest
functional classes (FFCs). (B) Clustering of FFCs
based on mapped canopy traits (Fig. 1) into six associated forest functional groups (FFGs). (C) The
six FFGs used for land-use analyses.
Fig. 3. Threats, protections, and conservation
opportunities for forest functional diversity in
the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon region. (A) Geographic distribution of threats (outlined in black)
and protections (outlined in white) for each FFG.
(B) Officially unallocated lands representing opportunities for conservation in each FFG.