INSIGHTS | LETTERS
terms, reveals where markets fail to fully
capture the true long-term economic value
of forests, as opposed to the short-term
commercial value, and thus where conservation attention is most needed.
Christopher B. Barrett,1 Mo Zhou,2
Peter B. Reich,3,4 Thomas W. Crowther,5
Jing jing Liang2*
1C.H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and
Management, Cornell University, Ithaca, N Y
14853, USA. 2School of Natural Resources, West
Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.
3Department of Forest Resources, University of
Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. 4Hawkesbury
Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney
University, Richmond NSW 2753, Australia.
5Netherlands Institute of Ecology, 6708 PB,
REFERENCES AND NOTES
1. R. Costanza et al. , Glob. Environ. Change 26, 152 (2014).
2. FAO, “Contribution of the forestry sector to national economies, 1990–2011” (Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations, Rome, 2014). Value added has been
adjusted for inflation and is expressed in USD at 2011
prices and exchange rates.
3. C. G. McNally, E. Uchida, A. J. Gold, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.
U.S.A. 108, 13945 (2011).
4. L.Naughton-Treves, J.Alix-Garcia, C.A.Chapman, Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 13919 (2011).
5. C.B.Barrett,A.J. Travis,P.Dasgupta, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
U.S.A. 108, 13907 (2011).
6. C. Messier, K. Puettmann, D. Coates, Managing Forests
as Complex Adaptive Systems: Building Resilience to the
Challenge of Global Change (Routledge, New York, 2013).
landscape in context
IN HIS IN DEP TH News Story “In Iran, a
shady market for papers flourishes” (16
September, p. 1197), R. Stone reports on
the sale of plagiarized papers among Iran’s
scientists. This issue must be interpreted
in context; Iran’s fledgling science community (1) should not be judged as if it is a
well-established scientific community in a
scientifically advanced country.
The revolutionary Iran came into exis-
tence with some 26 universities and 175,000
students in 1979 (2), when the country’s
published papers totaled less than 400 (3,
4). For the first two decades after revolution,
Iran’s scientists were mainly engaged with
establishing the necessary scientific and
technological infrastructure. Twenty years
after the revolution, the number of papers
published by Iranian scientists was still not
much more than 1000 (3, 4).
In 2000, when the number of publications
began to increase dramatically (3, 5), Iran’s
scientists and the science policy-makers
started to become cautious about the output
of the research done by our scientists. In the
relatively short time that Iran has increased
its published science output, its number of
established institutions and students, and
every other aspect of science activity, we have
not been successful enough in establishing
a scientific community with an innate code
of ethics (“Creating a culture of ethics in
Iran,” M. S. Rezaee-Zavareh et al., Letters, 21
October, p. 296). Many of Iran’s university fac-
ulty are not even aware of what is and is not
allowed in the scientific community. The time
scale of structural change in the scientific
sphere of the country has been too short and
its acceleration too high to develop the neces-
sary scientific “soft infrastructure.”
It was just 2 years ago that the Ministry
of Science, Research, and Technology of Iran
asked our universities and research institutes
to establish internal committees on science
ethics (6). There is now a group of university
faculty running a website about plagiarism
called “Professors Against Plagiarism” (7). In
the past 2 years, universities have started to
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