- parallel waist
Fig. 2. Self-assembled surface patterns of the ligands on the Au NPs. (A) Overall structure of ligands on the surface of NPs. (B) Rotational packing
of ligands at the pole site of the NP. (C) Parallel packing of ligands at the waist of the NP. (D) The C-H⋅⋅⋅p interactions for stabilizing the large-scale
rotational patterns and parallel patterns.
Fig. 3. Interparticle self-assembly dictated by the ligand density and the symmetry of surface patterns. (A and B) Coordination geometry of NPs in the
crystal lattice: side view (A) and top view (B). (C) Contacting environment among the interparticle ligands. The outside pentagons are located at the bottom of
the top three nanoparticles in (A), and the central pentagon is located at the top of the central nanoparticle. (D) Side-by-side stacking of the ligands in the NPs
with the same chirality. (E) Point-to-point stacking of the ligands in the NPs with opposite chirality. (F) Scheme showing the directional packing of NPs achieved
through matching the symmetry of surface patterns.