The content contained in this special, sponsored section was commissioned, edited, and published by the Science/AAAS Custom
Publishing Offce. It was not peer-reviewed or assessed by the Editorial staff of the journal Science; however, all manuscripts have
been critically evaluated by an international editorial team consisting of experts in traditional medicine research selected by the
project editor. The intent of this section is to provide a means for authors from institutions around the world to showcase their
state-of-the-art traditional medicine research through review/perspective-type articles that highlight recent progress in this burgeoning area. The editorial team and authors take full responsibility for the accuracy of the scientifc content and the facts stated.
Articles can be cited using the following format: [Author Name(s)], Science 347 (6219 Suppl), Sxx-Sxx (2015).
In this second of three special supplements, herbal genomics as
a novel approach for revolutionizing research on, and ultimately
use of, traditional herbal medicines and other materia medica,
as well as advances in their quality control and standardization, is
highlighted. A prominent focus is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s practical framework for developing botanicals (
including traditional medicines) into new drugs based on the same
standards as small molecule drugs. The application of mechanistic studies to drug discovery and development from traditional
therapies is discussed, with an emphasis on preclinical toxicology assessments, pharmacovigilance, comparative effectiveness
research, and the practice of “P4” medicine, particularly in the
context of inSuenza, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and cancer.
Bill Moran, Global Director
Ruolei Wu, Associate Director, Asia
Editor: Sean Sanders, Ph.D.
Assistant Editor: Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D.
Proofreader/Copyeditor: Yuse Lajiminmuhip
Designer: Amy Hardcastle
Tai-Ping Fan, Ph.D. (Guest project editor)
University of Cambridge, UK
Josephine Briggs, M.D.
National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, NIH, USA
Liang Liu, M.D., Ph.D.
Macau University of Science & Technology, Macau SAR, China
Aiping Lu, M.D., Ph.D.
Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China
Jan van der Greef, Ph.D.
University of Leiden and TNO, The Netherlands
Anlong Xu, Ph.D.
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China
S27 Herbal genomics: Examining the biology of traditional
S29 A holistic approach to the quality control of traditional
S32 Evolution of traditional medicines to botanical drugs
S35 Developing influenza treatments using traditional
S38 A novel drug discovery strategy inspired by traditional
S40 Deciphering ancient combinatorial formulas: The
Shexiang Baoxin pill
S43 Lessons from the development of the traditional Chinese
medicine formula PHY906
S45 The potential role of Chinese herbal medicines in cancer
S47 Evaluating the safety of herbal medicines: Integrated
S50 Combining 'omics and comparative effectiveness
research: Evidence-based clinical research decision-making for Chinese medicine