substructural elements found in many small
molecules (13), developing better methods for
iteratively coupling those building blocks together, and advancing the capacity for biosynthesis-inspired cyclizations of linear precursors to yield
complex natural product frameworks. Achieving
these objectives stands to better enable the scientific community to bring the substantial power of
small-molecule synthesis to bear upon many important unsolved problems in society.
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We acknowledge the NIH (grants GM080436 and GM090153), the
NSF (grant 0747778), HHMI, and Bristol-Myers Squibb for funding.
M.D.B. is an HHMI Early Career Scientist, J.L. was an HHMI
International Student Research Fellow, and J.L. and E.P.G. were
Bristol-Myers Squibb Graduate Fellows. We thank D. Gray for
performing the x-ray analysis on N-bromoacyl-14. The University
of Illinois has filed patent applications on MIDA boronate chemistry
and the automated synthesis platform reported herein. These
inventions have been licensed to REVOLUTION Medicines, a
company for which M.D.B. is a founder. Metrical parameters for
the structure of N-bromoacyl-14 are available free of charge from
the Cambridge Cyrstallographic Data Centre under reference
Materials and Methods
Figs. S1 to S14
Tables S1 to S3
22 December 2014; accepted 12 February 2015
A young multilayered terrane of
the northern Mare Imbrium revealed
by Chang’E-3 mission
Long Xiao,1,2 Peimin Zhu,1 Guangyou Fang,3 Zhiyong Xiao,1,4 Yongliao Zou,5
Jiannan Zhao,1 Na Zhao,1 Yuefeng Yuan,1 Le Qiao,1 Xiaoping Zhang,2 Hao Zhang,1
Jiang Wang,1 Jun Huang,1 Qian Huang,1 Qi He,1 Bin Zhou,3 Yicai Ji,3 Qunying Zhang,3
Shaoxiang Shen,3 Yuxi Li,3 Yunze Gao3
China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) spacecraft touched down on the northern Mare Imbrium of the
lunar nearside (340.49°E, 44.12°N), a region not directly sampled before. We report
preliminary results with data from the CE-3 lander descent camera and from the Yutu
rover’s camera and penetrating radar. After the landing at a young 450-meter crater rim,
the Yutu rover drove 114 meters on the ejecta blanket and photographed the rough surface
and the excavated boulders. The boulder contains a substantial amount of crystals, which
are most likely plagioclase and/or other mafic silicate mineral aggregates similar to
terrestrial dolerite. The Lunar Penetrating Radar detection and integrated geological
interpretation have identified more than nine subsurface layers, suggesting that this region
has experienced complex geological processes since the Imbrian and is compositionally
distinct from the Apollo and Luna landing sites.
Chang’E-3 (CE-3) landed at 340.49°E, 44.12°N on the Moon on 14 December 2013, and it released the Yutu (Jade Rabbit) rover the next morning (1). This was the first soft land- ing on the Moon since the Soviet Union’s
Luna 24 mission in 1976 and is a new landing site
in the north part of the Mare Imbrium (fig. S1).
Yutu is China’s first lunar geologic mission and
traveled in total ~114 m on the lunar surface. Following a zigzagging route, Yutu came to a halt
about 20 m to the southwest of the landing site
(Fig. 1). Yutu explored the lunar surface and subsurface near a young crater (fig. S2) using its four
main instruments: Panoramic Camera, Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR), Visible–Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS), and Active Particle-Induced
X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). In this study, we report the preliminary results obtained from the
cameras and LPR.
High-resolution images returned by both Yutu
and the lander show that the landing site features thin regolith and numerous small craters
that are centimeters to tens of meters in diameter (Fig. 1 and figs. S3 to S6). Although at the
regional scale the mare surface at the landing
site appears relatively flat, the landing site is located ~50 m from the eastern rim of the ~450-m
crater (C1) (2). The traversed area of the Yutu
rover was wholly restricted within the continuous ejecta deposits (fig. S2). Crater size-frequency
distribution measurements (2) for the continuous ejecta deposits of the C1 crater yield a minimum model age of ~27 million years (My) and a
maximum model age of ~80 My, which is late
Copernican (3), consistent with the estimation
made from the preservation state of the crater
and from the meter-sized boulders observed on
the crater rim (2).
Yutu drove very close to the rim of the C1 crater,
and its panoramic cameras photographed the
shape and interior features of the crater. A full
image of the crater was also acquired (fig. S4A)
when Yutu stood behind the Loong rock (
position number 13 in Fig. 1) (1). This circular-rimmed
crater has distinct rocky walls and rims, except
on the northern side. The ejected boulders are
1226 13 MARCH 2015 • VOL 347 ISSUE 6227 sciencemag.org SCIENCE
1China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.
2Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China.
3Institute of Electronics, China Academy of Science, Beijing
100190, China. 4The Centre for Earth Evolution and
Dynamics, University of Oslo, Sem Saelandsvei 24, 0371
Oslo, Norway. 5National Astronomical Observatories, China
Academy of Science, Beijing 100012, China.
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com (L.X.);
firstname.lastname@example.org (P.Z.); email@example.com (G.F.)