been reported ( 33), and ATM is proposed to
destabilize chromatin during nonhomologous
end-joining in human cells ( 29). We speculate
that Tel1 controls efficiency or distance over
which nucleosome destabilization occurs via
effects on chromatin remodelers, histone modifications, or both. S1-seq gives a selective, sensitive, and quantitative measure of DSB resection
tracts and should be applicable to other settings
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We thank A. Viale (MSKCC Integrated Genomics Operation) for
sequencing and N. Socci (MSKCC Bioinformatics Core) for
mapping S1-seq reads. Core facilities were supported by NIH grant
P30 CA008748. We thank M. Neale for discussions, N. Hunter
and R. Liskay for strains, and S. Tischfield for discussions and help
with base composition analysis. This work was supported by
NIH grants R01 GM058673 and R35 GM118092. E.P.M. was
supported by a Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Fellowship, and
S. Y. was supported by a Kuro Murase MD-JMSA Scholarship.
Sequencing data are at the Gene Expression Omnibus (accession
GSE85253). The authors declare no competing financial
interests. Correspondence and requests for materials should be
addressed to S.K. ( email@example.com). E.P.M. developed
S1-seq and performed experiments. S. Y. developed in silico
modeling of resection length and speed. E.P.M. and S.K.
designed the study, analyzed data, and wrote the paper, with
contributions from S. Y.
Materials and Methods
Figs. S1 to S5
Tables S1 and S2
References ( 34–54)
Movies S1 and S2
22 September 2016; accepted 23 November 2016
Volcanic tremor and plume
height hysteresis from Pavlof
David Fee,1 Matthew M. Haney,2 Robin S. Matoza, 3 Alexa R. Van Eaton, 4
Peter Cervelli,2 David J. Schneider,2 Alexandra M. Iezzi1
The March 2016 eruption of Pavlof Volcano, Alaska, produced an ash plume that caused
the cancellation of more than 100 flights in North America. The eruption generated strong
tremor that was recorded by seismic and remote low-frequency acoustic (infrasound) stations,
including the EarthScope Transportable Array. The relationship between the tremor amplitudes
and plume height changes considerably between the waxing and waning portions of the
eruption. Similar hysteresis has been observed between seismic river noise and discharge
during storms, suggesting that flow and erosional processes in both rivers and volcanoes can
produce irreversible structural changes that are detectable in geophysical data. We propose that
the time-varying relationship at Pavlof arose from changes in the tremor source related to
volcanic vent erosion. This relationship may improve estimates of volcanic emissions and
characterization of eruption size and intensity.
There are a number of well-documented chal- lenges in monitoring volcanic eruptions and their associated hazards (e.g., 1, 2). Ob- servatories typically rely on local seismic networks and satellites to make critical as-
sessments of eruption size and intensity. How-
ever, seismic networks can be sparse and difficult
to maintain, particularly at remote volcanoes
like those in the Aleutian Islands. Satellites often
have limited spatial and temporal resolution and
may be inhibited by cloud cover. Other remote
geophysical methods, such as low-frequency
acoustic (infrasound) arrays, can provide dis-
tinct and detailed information about eruption
processes (e.g., 3) but may also be part of a sparse
network and have a limited signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR) and latency as a result of the propagation
distance. It is therefore a priority to integrate
multiple observations to assess the eruptive haz-
ards during crisis response. However, we lack the
ability to quantitatively link seismo-acoustic ob-
servations to the intensity of ash emissions.
Seismic and infrasonic volcanic tremor is the
continuous vibration of the ground and air, re-
spectively, from a volcano. The origin of volcanic
tremor is a subject of active research, including
attempts to understand its relation to fluid trans-
port in the solid Earth and atmosphere (e.g., 3, 4).
Volcanic tremor during a sustained eruption is
termed eruption tremor. Models of seismic erupt-
ion tremor include a downward vertical force on
the solid Earth in response to volcanic jet thrust
( 5), erosion of the volcanic conduit and vent ( 6),
and chaotic wagging of the magma column ( 7).
Infrasonic tremor during eruptions has been
compared to the noise from high-velocity, turbu-
lent jet flows ( 8), and longer-period oscillations
are modeled as the result of the emplacement
and oscillation of the plume ( 9). However, these
models do not explain all features of eruption
tremor and do not provide accurate estimates of
critical eruption source parameters, such as mass
flux and plume height. Similarly, although there
is general agreement between tremor character-
istics such as amplitude and parameters such as
plume height (e.g., 10, 11, 12), sizable deviations
are possible. Improved understanding of the vol-
canic tremor source is critical for real-time erupt-
ion characterization and hazard mitigation.
SCIENCE sciencemag.org 6 JANUARY 2017 • VOL 355 ISSUE 6320 45
1Alaska Volcano Observatory, Wilson Alaska Technical Center,
Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903
Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. 2Alaska Volcano
Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, 4230 University Drive,
Anchorage, AK 99508, USA. 3Department of Earth Science
and Earth Research Institute, University of California–Santa
Barbara, Webb Hall MC9630, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
4Cascades Volcano Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey,
1300 Southeast Cardinal Court, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA.
*Corresponding author. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org